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Achaemenid Persia __ It's History, People and Warfare - Overview of Achaemenid Persia. - history, maps, photos, battles, and historical campaigns -

Cambyses (part one) __ "Cambyses (Old Persian Kambujiya): second king of the ancient Persian empire (ruled 530-522). In 525, he conquered Egypt. This is the first of two articles." When you finish reading you should have a good idea of the life of Cambyses. - By Jona Lendering -

Cyrus the Younger __ "Cyrus (Old Persian Kurush): Persian prince (424/423-401), revolted against his brother, king Artaxerxes II Mnemon. He was defeated and killed at Cunaxa." You will find a good account of his story. - By Jona Lendering -

The Epic of Kings __ English translation of the Epic of Kings by the Persian author, Ferdowsi. - From MIT -
Frye History of Ancient Iran __ Paper about the Sasanian period of ancient Persia. - From Ancient History Sourcebook -


History of Persia: Cyrus the Great __ "Cyrus was the first Achaemenian Emperor of Persia, who issued a decree on his aims and policies, later hailed as his charter of the rights of nations. Inscribed on a clay cylinder, this is known to be the first declaration of Human Rights, and is now kept at the British Museum. A replica of this is also at the United Nations in New York." You can read a good account of his life. - illustrated - From Nader Seif -

The Internet Classics Archive / Artaxerxes by Plutarch __ Learn about the life of Persian King Artaxerxes in a version writen by Plutarch, 75 C.E. - From MIT -

Iransaga - The Heroic Age of Persia __ "Little is known about prehistoric Persia. Here are two sections from the book "A History of Persia," by Sir Percy Sykes. The excerpts cover the history of two 'founding' dynasties, one of which is mostly legendary and the other based on more historical evidence. Today some Parsi families in India still claim these dynasties as ancestors. In the second of these dynasties, we know we are dealing with real people but as in many histories dealing with the ancient world, legend, fantasy and fact often blend. This website is a brief but enjoyable and important 'read' about this period in Iranian history." - From Art Arena - 



King Xerxes Invades Greece __ "Xerxes's army was the biggest that had ever been assembled in the ancient world, numbering at least several hundred thousand troops." His target was Greece, and he "ordered a fleet of a thousand warships to sail along the coast of the Aegean Sea, following his army and carrying provisions for the long march..." Learn how he was defeated after all the preparation. -

Parthian Empire - History and Coins of Ancient Parthia __ About the history and coinage of ancient Parthia. "Because limited written historical sources have survived, much of what we know about the Parthians and their sub-kingdoms of Characene, Elymais and Persis must be deduced from coins. For that reason, the primary focus is on numismatics." - illustrated - many language options -


Persepolis and Ancient Iran __ "The chronology of the Persepolis finds was traceable largely through the inscriptions on seals, wall pegs, and foundation slabs, that were discovered. Each usually bore the name of the Achaemenid ruler of its time. Cylinder seals, generally made of stone, often depict, among other subjects, martial or hunting scenes, rituals and offerings, or fights between animals. The royal seals of Darius and Xerxes always depict a king victorious in his fight with ferocious animals or monsters, a scene also depicted in the royal reliefs." Here is a look at ancient Persia and the city of Persepolis as depicted on seals. - click-to-view illustrations - From Oriental Institute of Chicago -



Persia After the Death of Alexander and Its Resistance To Hellenistic World __ A detailed article about the Persians and Hellenistic influences. - By Maryam Hedayati -

The Persians Reject Democracy/Darius' State __ An ancient writing by Herodotus about the politics of Darius. - From Ancient History Sourcebook -


The Qanats of Iran __ "Some 3,000 years ago the Persians learned how to dig underground aqueducts that would bring mountain ground water to the plains. Today (NB: = 1968!) the system provides 75 percent of the water used in Iran - click-to-view illustrations - From Scientific American -

Queen Tomyris of the Massagetai and the Defeat of the Persians under Cyrus __ "The greater part of the army of the Persians was destroyed and Cyrus himself fell, after reigning nine and twenty years." Read this telling account of the battle by Herodotus - From Ancient History Sourcebook -

The Seleucid Dynasty __ The Seleucid dynasty ruled Persia after the death of Alexander the Great. - By Jona Lendering -



Seleucids __ A brief but excellent history of the Seleucid dynasty of ancient Persia. - From The Catholic Encyclopedia -


Sogdiana Iranian culture in Central Asia __ "Sogdiana is an historical region of Central Asia currently comprised of Southern Uzbekistan and Western Tajikistan. Her population was Iranian in culture and language even if many aspects still remain enigmatic." You will learn about its history and the archaeological evidence to support it. - illustrated - From The Iranian -

When Cyrus the Great was a Boy __ An ancient account by Xenophon - From Ancient History Sourcebook -



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